Get the DealBook newsletter to make sense of major business and policy headlines — and the power-brokers who shape them.__________
Contemporary life seems to invite comparisons to the Gilded Age, but there is little consensus on the meaning of that era.
Some emphasize the unfettered accumulation of economic and political power by the few at the expense of the many. Tim Wu’s recent book, “The Curse of Bigness: Antitrust in the New Gilded Age,” argued that failing to break up the newest giant corporations posed a grave risk of repeating the worst excesses of the Gilded Age.
Others focus on the remarkable gains in productivity when the United States’ economy finally overtook Britain’s. Alan Greenspan’s “Capitalism in America: A History” stressed that the growth from 1870 to 1896 was not only in wealth but in real wages and living standards.
The implications of this historical debate for public policy today makes a recent book on the events that brought the Gilded Age to an end and ushered in the Progressive Era all the more timely and urgent.
Jack Kelly’s “The Edge of Anarchy: The Railroad Barons, the Gilded Age and the Greatest Labor Uprising in America” opens in May 1893 with President Grover Cleveland surveying the half-million citizens who had filled the Chicago World’s Fair, “the most astounding metropolis ever built.” The Columbian Exposition, as it was known, was a celebration of the 400th anniversary of Columbus’s arrival in the New World as well as “the productivity of American commerce.” Four days after the fair opened, the bottom dropped out of the United States economy, which was further crippled that summer by “an increasingly ferocious depression.”
The resulting economic turmoil provided the backdrop for a series of mass labor actions that are the focus of the book. These began with an unlikely 40-year-old Ohio businessman named Jacob Coxey’s leading a hundred unemployed workers to Washington on foot to petition for a vast infrastructure investment project to alleviate unemployment and remedy the sorry state of the nation’s roads.
The improbable prophet picked up many more along the way and motivated multiple independent Coxeyite groups from across the West to make their way East. Although few ultimately completed the journey, and Coxey was arrested and convicted under a law making it a crime to deliver a “harangue or oration” on Capitol property, the nation was held transfixed by the progress of the so-called Coxey Armies.
The core of “The Edge of Anarchy” is a thrilling description of the boycott of Pullman cars and equipment by Eugene Debs’s fledgling American Railway Union. The strike caused much of the country’s commerce to grind to a halt, federal troops were called out over the objections of state officials, and many lives were lost. Mr. Kelly closely scrutinizes the roles not only of the American Railway Union and management but of state, local and federal officials, the courts, industry, the press, activists, and labor. No one comes out unscathed.
At the heart of the story is the complex figure of George Pullman. A paternalistic but benevolent capitalist, he had built an elegant planned community for his workers complete with parks, a library, a theater and an arcade. In the end, however, he decided that he would rather see the town and possibly the nation burn than accept any limitations on the inherent prerogatives of ownership.
The stark contrast between the rather modest concessions sought by the American Railway Union and the magnitude of the conflagration that ultimately erupted is a reminder of how wrong things can go when matters of principle are at stake. Few in power had much sympathy for Pullman’s intransigence, but fewer still were willing to even implicitly question the inviolability of property rights by forcing his hand. Pullman’s position — “There is nothing to arbitrate” — remained steadfast throughout.
Among the most eye-opening aspects of “The Edge of Anarchy” is the description of how government actually worked in that era. The current administration has nothing on Cleveland’s when it comes to conflicts of interest and illicit collusion among the organs of government and business.
Attorney General Richard Olney was a railroad lawyer and took the position on the condition that he could continue to represent clients. He remained a railroad board member with Pullman. He conspired with the White House and federal judges to draft the clearly unconstitutional injunction that landed Debs in jail. It was upheld unanimously, despite the fervent advocacy of Debs’s lawyer Clarence Darrow, by the same Supreme Court that would decide Plessy v. Ferguson the next year.
As depressing as some of this history is, it does provide hope that our institutions and our spirit are strong enough to survive even the most frontal attacks. When Debs was released from prison, over 100,000 supporters awaited his return to Chicago at Union Station. A commission empaneled to examine the causes of the boycott produced a scathing report that resulted in some of the earliest workers’ rights legislation. And the midterm elections of 1894 made President Trump’s corresponding performance look like a victory: Cleveland’s Democratic Party would go from a 94-seat surplus to a 161-seat deficit and not regain the presidency or either house of Congress until 1910.
东方心经12集【宁】【裴】【山】【右】【腕】【一】【颤】，【方】【才】【被】【孽】【妖】【熄】【灭】【的】【法】【阵】【锁】【链】【上】，【再】【次】【升】【腾】【起】【了】【火】【焰】！ 【紫】【色】【的】【烈】【焰】【比】【之】【前】【来】【得】【更】【加】【猛】【烈】，【甚】【至】【还】【泛】【着】【金】【色】【的】【光】【样】【交】【织】【在】【一】【起】！ 【红】【色】【的】【朱】【砂】【字】【节】【在】【符】【咒】【上】【不】【断】【跳】【动】，【震】【动】【而】【起】【的】【符】【文】【一】【时】【更】【是】【化】【作】【数】【道】【锁】【链】，【如】【巨】【大】【的】【蛛】【网】【一】【齐】【向】【着】【对】【方】【袭】【去】！ 【紫】【色】【的】【火】【焰】【腾】【飞】，【顷】【刻】【间】，【便】【将】【孽】【妖】【的】【身】【躯】【死】
【磊】【儿】【替】【姬】【染】【雪】【盖】【好】【了】【被】【子】，【然】【后】【坐】【在】【姬】【染】【雪】【的】【身】【旁】，【也】【不】【知】【道】【在】【想】【些】【什】【么】，【但】【是】，【到】【底】【是】【这】【么】【的】【留】【了】【下】【来】。 【算】【了】，【他】【就】【再】【留】【到】【姬】【染】【雪】【的】【病】【养】【好】【之】【后】，【正】【好】【他】【那】【天】【得】【到】【的】【心】【法】【还】【没】【练】【好】，【可】【以】【趁】【着】【这】【段】【时】【间】【全】【部】【练】【好】！ 【这】【一】【回】，【就】【变】【成】【是】【磊】【儿】【在】【照】【顾】【姬】【染】【雪】【了】，【就】【像】【是】【姬】【染】【雪】【最】【开】【始】【在】【照】【顾】【磊】【儿】【一】【样】，【只】【可】【惜】，【磊】
【略】【带】【寒】【意】【的】【冷】【风】【吹】【起】【窗】【帘】，【窗】【外】【正】【好】【对】【着】【鲜】【花】【怒】【放】【的】【花】【园】。 “【艾】【米】【迪】【娅】，【我】【曾】【说】【过】【我】【会】【帮】【助】【你】【的】。” 【在】【窗】【户】【后】【面】，【西】【里】【奥】【斯】【的】【声】【音】【一】【如】【既】【往】【的】【缓】【慢】【温】【柔】，【一】【字】【一】【顿】，【似】【乎】【是】【刻】【意】【放】【慢】【说】【一】【般】。 【话】【音】【刚】【落】，【她】【缓】【慢】【倾】【身】，【夹】【杂】【着】【玫】【瑰】【花】【的】【气】【息】【迎】【面】【袭】【来】。 【曾】【经】【熟】【悉】【的】【气】【味】【在】【此】【刻】【变】【得】【无】【比】【陌】【生】。 【艾】【米】
“【开】【个】【玩】【笑】！” 【深】【知】【沐】【雪】【此】【时】【的】【表】【情】【不】【对】，【急】【忙】【转】【移】【话】【题】！【又】【是】【一】【段】【时】【间】【没】【见】【到】【她】，【心】【中】【的】【想】【念】【都】【快】【泛】【滥】【成】【灾】【了】！ “【我】【说】【你】【带】【着】【这】【个】【破】【围】【巾】【干】【嘛】，【丑】【死】【了】，【赶】【紧】【摘】【了】【吧】！” 【左】【年】【伸】【手】【就】【要】【摘】【她】【的】【面】【巾】，【沐】【雪】【皱】【眉】【一】【个】【侧】【身】【躲】【过】，【反】【脚】【踢】【开】【他】！ 【于】【若】【抱】【着】【他】【的】【身】【躯】，【她】【求】【而】【不】【得】【的】【人】【竟】【然】【被】【人】【这】【样】【对】【待】，东方心经12集“【快】，【快】，【这】【个】【花】【篮】【放】【在】【那】【边】。”【萧】【飒】【穿】【着】【一】【身】【粉】【红】【色】【的】【长】【款】【礼】【裙】，【腰】【间】【扎】【着】【一】【个】【蝴】【蝶】【结】。 “【这】【边】【布】【置】【的】【怎】【么】【样】【了】？”【齐】【颜】【穿】【着】【一】【身】【鹅】【黄】【色】【的】【旗】【袍】，【从】【礼】【堂】【外】【缓】【缓】【走】【了】【进】【来】。 “【快】【了】。”【萧】【飒】【眉】【眼】【间】【都】【是】【喜】【悦】。 “【时】【间】【过】【得】【真】【快】，【老】【大】【终】【于】【要】【嫁】【出】【去】【了】。”【齐】【颜】【一】【副】【老】【母】【亲】【的】【样】【子】，【看】【的】【人】【直】【想】【笑】。 “
【玉】【华】【斋】【后】，【他】【一】【直】【以】【为】【未】【提】【名】【的】【院】【落】【大】【门】【上】，‘【倾】【月】【水】【榭】’【四】【个】【大】【字】，【神】【韵】【超】【逸】，【正】【是】【他】【亲】【笔】【所】【提】，【有】【些】【事】【情】，【似】【乎】【不】【言】【而】【喻】。 “【王】【爷】！” 【元】【香】【上】【前】，【见】【王】【爷】【怀】【里】【抱】【着】【一】【个】【女】【子】，【心】【下】【一】【喜】，【莫】【不】【是】【王】【妃】【娘】【娘】【回】【来】【了】？【但】【是】【走】【近】【一】【瞧】，【女】【子】【眉】【粗】【面】【糙】，【哪】【里】【是】【谪】【仙】【一】【般】【的】【王】【妃】【娘】【娘】？ 【心】【中】【一】【叹】，【王】【爷】【这】【是】【怎】
【曲】【家】【人】【起】【初】【以】【为】【徐】【铁】【军】【一】【行】【人】【也】【是】【来】【福】【聚】【岛】【旅】【游】【的】，【出】【于】【感】【激】，【执】【意】【要】【请】【他】【们】【去】【度】【假】【村】【餐】【厅】【吃】【饭】。 【徐】【铁】【军】【推】【脱】【不】【过】，【只】【好】【透】【露】：【自】【己】【女】【儿】【就】【是】【度】【假】【村】【的】【主】【人】。 【曲】【家】【人】【惊】【讶】【之】【余】，【依】【然】【坚】【持】：“【您】【女】【儿】【是】【度】【假】【村】【主】【人】，【我】【们】【难】【道】【就】【不】【能】【请】【你】【们】【吃】【饭】【了】？【走】【走】【走】！【把】【你】【女】【儿】、【女】【婿】【都】【叫】【上】！【请】【务】【必】【赏】【个】【脸】！” 【徐】
【李】【岚】【修】【一】【口】【冰】【冷】【的】【洋】【酒】【灌】【下】，【摊】【在】【椅】【子】【上】。【缓】【缓】【的】【吐】【出】【了】【口】【气】。【觉】【得】【自】【己】【刚】【刚】【疯】【狂】【跳】【动】【的】【心】【脏】【得】【到】【了】【平】【缓】。 【其】【余】【三】【人】【都】【是】【差】【不】【多】【的】【情】【况】。【古】【神】【给】【他】【们】【的】【压】【力】【实】【在】【是】【太】【大】【了】。【远】【超】【他】【们】【的】【生】【命】【层】【次】【和】【那】【嗜】【血】【的】【眼】【神】。【让】【李】【岚】【修】【的】【心】【脏】【跳】【的】【和】【急】【鼓】【似】【的】。 【酒】【精】【的】【味】【道】【不】【是】【很】【好】，【李】【岚】【修】【喝】【了】【一】【口】【也】【就】【是】【应】【应】【景】。【特】【别】