He keeps showing up, like some slightly bemused and maniacal houseguest, usually intending to get a laugh but instead taking America back into a wicked time warp. The man in blackface stands there, frozen. The photo of him starts to ricochet around our race-haunted land. The outcry begins anew.
We find ourselves in this situation again after a photo was circulated last week showing a man in blackface standing next to a man in a Ku Klux Klan robe on the medical school yearbook page of Gov. Ralph Northam of Virginia. At first, Mr. Northam admitted to being in the photo (without disclosing which of the two men he was), but then he backtracked and denied it. He did, though, admit to a different flirtation with blackface, when he dressed as Michael Jackson. On Wednesday, the state’s attorney general, Mark Herring, also a Democrat, acknowledged that he himself had donned blackface while in college. All this as Virginia, like the rest of the country, celebrates Black History Month.
Blackface in America just won’t go away — consistently showing up at stag parties, on frat row, in college musicals and elsewhere.
But the persistence of blackface is unsurprising. It has been a part of American popular culture since what we recognize as popular culture emerged — roughly round 1832, when Thomas Dartmouth Rice, in blackface, performed his song “Jump Jim Crow” to thunderous applause at the Bowery Theatre in New York.
“It started during President Andrew Jackson’s presidency,” said Rhae Lynn Barnes, a professor of American cultural history at Princeton and the author of the forthcoming “Darkology: When the American Dream Wore Blackface.” She added that minstrel shows and blackface performances both reinforced and popularized the “stereotype of the dimwitted slave who was happy to be in the South.”
For showbusiness impresarios, there was money to be made in perpetuating such stereotypes.
A partial list of people who have appeared in blackface on screen and stage in the 186 years since Rice’s performance on the Bowery includes: Desi Arnaz, Fred Astaire, Dan Aykroyd, Freeman Gosden and Charles Correll (from “Amos ‘n’ Andy”), Ethel Barrymore, Milton Berle, Jimmy Cagney, Joan Crawford, Bing Crosby, Billy Crystal, Ted Danson, Marion Davies, Robert Downey Jr., Judy Garland, Alec Guinness, Stan Laurel, Oliver Hardy, Benny Hill, Bob Hope, Boris Karloff, Buster Keaton, Hedy Lamarr, Janet Leigh, Harold Lloyd, Sophia Loren, Myrna Loy, the Marx Brothers, David Niven, Laurence Olivier, Will Rogers, Mickey Rooney, Frank Sinatra, Grace Slick, Spencer Tracy, Shirley Temple, John Wayne, Mae West, Gene Wilder and the Three Stooges.
[Read our critic Wesley Morris’s assessment of Gov. Northam’s situation.]
“Its longevity is because it’s been institutionalized into every aspect of American life,” Dr. Barnes said. “People have perpetuated blackface because we don’t teach minstrel history. If these people had ever been exposed to it in a safe classroom environment, they would know better.”
Judging from not only various records of campus life but also the numerous Instagram accounts of women appearing as “black” personalities — a phenomenon known as “blackfishing” — many do not know better.
The popularity of blackface was at its height in the early 20th century and has waned sharply since the ’50s, but it certainly hasn’t disappeared. Rather, it has taken on different forms, perhaps more palatable to modern audiences.
In 1986, “Soul Man” was a major Hollywood release, featuring C. Thomas Howell in blackface, posing as an African-American to reap the rewards of affirmative action. As recently as the early 2000s, Jimmy Kimmel wore blackface on “The Man Show” while doing an impression of the basketball player Karl Malone. He has never apologized for it, and he’s on television five nights a week. And it wasn’t until 2015 that the Metropolitan Opera of New York stopped using makeup to darken the faces of the singers in the lead role of “Othello.”
【庄】【蹻】【想】【到】【自】【己】【穿】【着】【阿】【彩】【送】【给】【的】【红】【短】【裤】，【用】【它】【肯】【定】【可】【以】【击】【退】【疯】【牛】，【于】【是】【便】【到】【一】【旁】【避】【开】【景】【茵】，【将】【那】【短】【裤】【脱】【了】【下】【来】，【并】【将】【它】【撕】【成】【两】【个】，【交】【给】【小】【卜】【一】【个】【道】：“【快】【拿】【着】【它】，【不】【要】【再】【用】【血】【染】【了】。” 【就】【这】【样】，【不】【知】【有】【多】【少】【士】【兵】【割】【破】【自】【己】【的】【皮】【肤】，【用】【鲜】【血】【染】【红】【的】【衣】【衫】，【将】【疯】【牛】【们】【引】【导】【为】【相】【互】【自】【撞】，【大】【破】【了】【敌】【人】【得】【意】【的】【疯】【牛】【阵】。 【正】【在】
【从】【魔】【法】【塔】【离】【开】，【威】【廉】【的】【心】【思】【远】【比】【墨】【西】【斯】【看】【见】【的】【要】【沉】【重】【很】【多】。 【因】【为】【他】【作】【为】【一】【名】【重】【生】【者】，【知】【道】【的】【东】【西】【比】【墨】【墨】【要】【更】【多】。 【而】【诸】【神】【大】【陆】【的】【合】【并】，【还】【有】【所】【带】【来】【的】【各】【方】【面】【灾】【难】【来】【说】，【也】【远】【远】【不】【止】【海】【啸】【地】【震】【那】【么】【简】【单】；【就】【在】【这】【时】，【洛】【特】【纳】【感】【受】【到】【了】【他】【的】【气】【息】，【便】【立】【刻】【从】【远】【方】【飞】【来】，【还】【气】【喘】【吁】【吁】【的】【说】【道】：“【殿】【下】，【你】【可】【总】【算】【回】【来】【了】，
【大】【皇】【女】【在】【书】【房】【里】【待】【了】【一】【天】，【谁】【都】【没】【有】【见】，【第】【二】【天】【才】【召】【见】【了】【自】【己】【的】【几】【个】【心】【腹】【在】【书】【房】【里】【谈】【话】。 【几】【个】【人】【都】【隐】【隐】【察】【觉】【大】【殿】【下】【似】【乎】【神】【色】【有】【些】【不】【妥】，【眼】【神】【很】【沉】，【很】【幽】【深】，【很】【黑】，【暗】【藏】【着】【什】【么】【涌】【流】【一】【样】，【乌】【沉】【沉】【的】【有】【点】【逼】【人】。 “【现】【在】【母】【皇】【已】【经】【决】【定】【将】【白】【朗】【月】【立】【为】【皇】【太】【女】【了】，【对】【于】【此】【事】，【你】【们】【有】【什】【么】【看】【法】，【有】【什】【么】【法】【子】【扭】【转】【这】【个】【局】免费三肖期期中【白】【落】【羽】【思】【及】，【似】【乎】【当】【初】【同】【她】【一】【起】【待】【在】【谷】【中】【之】【时】，【墨】【凌】【天】【似】【乎】【也】【问】【过】【了】【相】【同】【的】【类】【似】【问】【题】。 【墨】【凌】【天】【知】【晓】【白】【落】【羽】【的】【性】【子】，【是】【一】【个】【耐】【得】【住】【的】【人】，【就】【像】【她】【可】【以】【几】【年】【身】【居】【在】【谷】【中】【而】【可】【以】【不】【外】【出】【一】【样】，【他】【曾】【经】【设】【想】【过】【或】【许】【她】【是】【喜】【欢】【那】【样】【的】【生】【活】，【因】【为】【她】【的】【性】【格】，【然】【而】【在】【知】【晓】【了】【她】【真】【正】【的】【身】【世】【之】【后】，【墨】【凌】【天】【开】【始】【担】【忧】，【她】【是】【否】【会】【因】【为】【这】
【安】【熙】【尧】【一】【回】【到】【病】【房】，【就】【听】【见】【安】【萌】【萌】【焦】【急】【的】【声】【音】：“【美】【美】，【你】【说】【话】【啊】，【别】【这】【样】【憋】【着】【自】【己】，【你】【说】【话】【好】【不】【好】？” 【安】【萌】【萌】【看】【着】【一】【个】【人】【缩】【在】【角】【落】【里】【的】【美】【美】，【想】【要】【伸】【手】【将】【她】【拉】【起】【来】，【可】【是】【她】【刚】【一】【伸】【手】，【美】【美】【就】【捂】【住】【脑】【袋】【大】【声】【惨】【叫】【起】【来】：“【啊】——【别】【碰】【我】！【别】【动】【我】【的】【孩】【子】！” 【安】【萌】【萌】【看】【得】【哭】【了】【起】【来】，【蹲】【下】【身】【一】【直】【哭】，【抽】【泣】【着】【对】【美】
【她】【急】【忙】【追】【上】【去】【拦】【住】【了】【他】，【旋】【即】【捂】【着】【胸】【口】，【喘】【了】【喘】【气】:“【你】【能】【不】【能】【先】【把】【我】【送】【回】【去】？” 【他】【疑】【惑】【不】【解】【地】【看】【着】【她】:“【你】【爸】【不】【是】【给】【你】【配】【了】【专】【职】【司】【机】【吗】” “【哼】，【还】【专】【职】【司】【机】【呢】!【早】【被】【我】【辞】【退】【了】!” 【她】【话】【锋】【一】【转】【说】:“【你】【该】【不】【会】【不】【愿】【意】【送】【我】【吧】？” “【不】【是】【不】【愿】【意】【送】，【主】【要】【是】【今】【晚】【我】【是】【散】【步】【到】【这】【里】【的】。” 【凌】【冉】【话】【锋】【一】